|home articles forums media subtitles software||login|
|Forums » Parking lot||topic closed|
|Outlaws or angels - Hall of fame||bookmark topic | reload topic|
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:18:18|
Outlaws and angels
Handle: None (nothing to hide!)
Claim to fame: A hacker of the old school, Stallman walked in off the street and got a job at MIT's Artificial Intelligence Lab in 1971. He was an undergraduate at Harvard at the time. Disturbed that software was viewed as private property, Stallman later founded the Free Software Foundation.
First encountered a computer: In 1969, at the IBM New York Scientific Center. He was 16 years old.
Unusual tools: In the 1980s Stallman left MIT's payroll but continued to work from an office at MIT. Here he created a new operating system called GNU short for GNU's Not Unix.
Little-known fact: Recipient of a $240,000 MacArthur Foundation genius grant.
Current status: Richard Stallman has just published his latest book, Free Software, Free Society: Selected Essays of Richard M. Stallman, available through GNU Press.
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:18:46|
Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson
Handles: dmr and Ken
Claim to fame: The driving creative force behind Bell Labs' legendary computer science operating group, Ritchie and Thompson created UNIX in 1969. An elegant, open operating system for minicomputers, UNIX helped users with general computing, word processing and networking, and soon became a standard language.
Unusual tools: Plan 9, the next-generation operating system created as the natural descendant of UNIX by Thompson and Bell Labs colleague Rob Pike.
Little-known fact: Although Ritchie is the author of the popular C programming language, his favorite language is Alef. Thompson, an amateur pilot, once traveled to Moscow to fly a MiG-29.
Current status: Dennis Ritchie is currently the head of Lucent Technology's System Software Research Department, while Ken Thompson has retired from both Bell Labs and the hacker spotlight.
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:19:14|
Handle: Cap'n Crunch
Claim to fame: Figured out how to make free phone calls using a plastic prize whistle he found in a cereal box. Cap'n Crunch introduced generations of hackers to the glorious concept of phone "phreaking."
First encountered a computer: As a teenager, trying to convince pay phones to return his coin and put through his calls.
Unusual tools: The toy whistle from boxes of Cap'n Crunch cereal. The whistle reproduced the 2600 hertz tone necessary to authorize a call. Used in conjunction with a bluebox, it allowed users to make free phone calls. (Oscar Meyer weiner whistles also briefly gained a following among phone phreakers.)
Little-known fact: Honorably discharged from the U.S. Air Force in 1968 after a stint in Vietnam.
Current status: John Draper has set up his own security firm. He also recently developed Crunchbox, a firewall system that halts the spread of computer viruses.
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:19:39|
Handle: Phiber Optik
Claim to fame: As a founding member of the Masters of Deception, Phiber Optik inspired thousands of teenagers around the country to "study" the internal workings of our nation's phone system. A federal judge attempted to "send a message" to other hackers by sentencing Phiber to a year in federal prison, but the message got garbled: Hundreds of well-wishers attended a welcome-home party in Abene's honor at an elite Manhattan Club. Soon after, New York magazine dubbed him one of the city's 100 smartest people.
First encountered a computer: Hanging out in the electronics department of the A&S department store in Queens, N.Y., where his mother worked. There he was introduced to the Apple II, the Timex Sinclair and the Commodore 64. The first computer he owned was a Radio Shack TRS-80 (Trash-80).
Unusual tools: Experimented by dialing patterns on a phone receiver. Abene used the receiver so frequently that it had to be bandaged with black electrical tape to keep its guts from falling out.
Little-known fact: Phiber Optik's favorite food: mashed potatoes from Kentucky Fried Chicken. Not real mashed potatoes. Real ones have lumps in them.
Current status: After doing time in a Pennsylvania prison, Mark Abene worked on penetration tests for an accounting firm, and formed the (now defunct) security company, Crossbar Security
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:20:07|
Claim to fame: The son of the chief scientist at the National Computer Security Center part of the National Security Agency (NSA) this Cornell University graduate student introduced the word "hacker" into the vernacular when he accidentally unleashed an Internet worm in 1988. Thousands of computers were infected and subsequently crashed.
First encountered a computer: At home. Morris' father once brought home one of the original Enigma cryptographic machines from the NSA. It became a household conversation piece.
Unusual tools: As a teenager Morris had an account on the Bell Labs' computer network, where early hacking forays gave him super-user status.
Little-known fact: When the Secret Service raided the home of Legion of Doom member Erik Bloodaxe in 1990, they found a copy of the source code for Morris' Internet worm.
Current status: Robert Morris is now an assistant professor at MIT, even though he released his worm virus from there in 1988 (thus disguising the fact that it was actually written at Cornell University).
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:20:34|
Claim to fame: The first hacker to have his face immortalized on an FBI "Most Wanted" poster. His status as a repeat offender a teenage hacker who couldn't grow up earned Mitnick the nickname "The Lost Boy of Cyberspace."
First encountered a computer: As a teenager. Mitnick couldn't afford a computer, so he hung out in a Radio Shack store. He used the store's demo models and modem to dial other computers.
Unusual tools: During the three years he was on the lam, Mitnick used Internet Relay Chat (IRC) as a message drop and to communicate with his friends.
Little-known fact: Sentenced to a year in a residential treatment center, Mitnick enrolled in a 12-step program to rid himself of what a judge agreed was his "computer addiction."
Current status: Kevin Mitnick played himself in 2001's hacker documentary Freedom Downtime. He also appeared on ABC's Alias as a CIA computer whiz; to play the role, Mitnick was only allowed to use prop computers.
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:22:08|
Handle: Dark Dante
Claim to fame: In 1990 Poulsen took over all telephone lines going into Los Angeles area radio station KIIS-FM, assuring that he would be the 102nd caller. Poulsen won a Porsche 944 S2 for his efforts.
First encountered a computer: When his parents bought him a TRS-80 (better known as a "Trash-80").
Unusual tools: A set of locksmith tools he used to break into phone company trailers. He was caught after a friend commemorated the break-ins with snapshots of Poulsen picking locks.
Little-known fact: Admitted breaking into computers to get the names of undercover businesses operated by the FBI.
Current status: Thanks to an episode of Unsolved Mysteries, Kevin Poulsen was arrested and spent three years in prison. He was then forbidden to touch a computer for another three years. Poulsen is now a self-proclaimed "reformed and penitent" journalist, and serves as editorial director for Security Focus.
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:22:32|
Claim to fame: Operated the world's most popular anonymous remailer, called penet.fi, until he closed up shop in September 1996. Helsingius' troubles started when he was raided in 1995 by the Finnish police after the Church of Scientology complained that a penet.fi customer was posting the "church's" secrets on the Net. Helsingius mothballed the remailer after a Finnish court ruled he must reveal the customer's real e-mail address.
Unusual tools: Ran the world's busiest remailer on a run-of-the mill 486 with a 200-megabyte harddrive.
Little-known fact: Never felt the need himself to post anonymously.
Current status: Johan Helsingius lends his cyber knowledge to communication companies worldwide.
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:22:53|
Claim to fame: A graduate of St. Petersburg Tekhnologichesky University, this mathematician allegedly masterminded the Russian hacker gang that tricked Citibank's computers into spitting out $10 million. Arrested by Interpol at Heathrow Airport in 1995.
First encountered a computer: Unknown. Accused of using his office computer at AO Saturn, a St. Petersburg, Russia, computer firm, to break into Citibank.
Unusual tools: Along with a computer, computer games and disks, Russian police confiscated a camcorder, music speakers and a TV set from Levin's apartment.
Little-known fact: Levin claimed that one of the lawyers assigned to defend him was actually an FBI agent.
Current status: Vladimir Levin fought extradition to the United States for two years, but eventually lost his case. He was sentenced to three years in prison and ordered to pay Citibank $240,015 (his share from the heist). Citibank has since begun using the Dynamic Encryption Card, a security system so tight that no other financial institution in the world has it.
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:24:42|
Why Woz? Because he exemplifies the young hacker's dream. Just out of college, the two Steves (Wozniak and Jobs) set to work designing computer games (for Atari) and building blue boxes (for themselves). Woz builds the Apple I. It has no keyboard, no case, no sound or graphics, but it is a thing of beauty nonetheless. The boys shake hands on April Fools' Day 1976, and Apple Computer is born. The pride of the Homebrew Computer Club, Wozniak trades in his HP programmable calculator and Jobs sells his VW van to finance production from a Palo Alto garage.
Current status: Steve Wozniak continues to do work for Apple. You can learn more about him on his website, www.woz.org.
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:25:05|
To state the obvious: Shimomura outhacked and outsmarted Kevin Mitnick, the nation's most infamous cracker/phreaker, in early 1994. After colleagues at the San Diego Supercomputing Center informed Shimomura that someone had stolen hundreds of software programs and files from his work station, the computer security expert worked on a tip to track the thief through the WELL. A labyrinthine telco trail eventually led to an apartment complex in Raleigh, N.C., where FBI agents apprehended Mitnick. (They've had less luck tracking down Mitnick's alleged Israeli accomplice.) But that's not all: A consultant to the FBI, Air Force and National Security Agency, Shimomura is rumored to have engaged in darkside dabblings himself. As Jon Littman notes, "I've always wondered why he wrote that program to eavesdrop on cell phone calls. Somehow it doesn't sound like an NSA contract."
Current status: Tsutomu Shimomura co-wrote Takedown, an account of how he trapped hacker Kevin Mitnick. He still works for San Diego Supercomputer as a research fellow.
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:25:26|
A true hacker in the classic sense, Linus Torvalds was a computer science student at the University of Helsinki when he wrote the operating system Linux (a contraction of "Linus' Minix") in 1991. The software has proven to be tremendously popular worldwide and best of all it's FREE! Torvalds modestly attributes much of Linux's success to the Net and to Richard Stallman's GNU: Both have facilitated development of his original kernel by fostering collaboration among software programmers and developers.
Current status: Linus Torvalds one of the most genuinely respected hackers in history now works for Transmeta, a company that develops software-based microprocessors. He's married with two daughters.
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:25:52|
Eric Steven Raymond
Eric Steven Raymond is the granddaddy of today's hackers, a man who revels in living the life in all its geeky glory. According to him, "The world is full of fascinating problems waiting to be solved."
Annoyed by the fact that most people misuse the term "hacker," he wrote The Hacker's Dictionary and How to Be a Hacker. (Raymond says the basic difference is that "hackers build things, crackers break them.")
Not only is he respected for his astounding skills as a programmer, but Raymond is also valued as a fierce defender of the Open Source Movement, which is based on the premise that programmers should be able to read and modify all software source codes. In this IT paradise, programmers would be able to improve software and fix any potentially lethal bugs. Steve Wozniak would be a god. Bill Gates would be the serpent.
In addition to programming, Raymond is also a fan of libertarianism, neo-paganism and the right to bear arms.
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:26:15|
The year was 1981. The Reagan administration was in its infancy. "Elvira" was setting the Billboard charts on fire. And a young hacker was about to become the first person ever arrested for a computer crime.
Eighteen months earlier, Ian Murphy (a.k.a. "Captain Zap") along with three cohorts, hacked into AT&T's computers and changed their internal clocks. People suddenly received late-night discounts in the afternoon, while others who waited until midnight to use the phone were greeted with hefty bills. For his part in the crime, Murphy was greeted with 1,000 hours of community service and 2 1/2 years probation (considerably less than what fellow hackers would receive today). He also became the inspiration for the movie Sneakers.
Today Murphy, like other hackers, runs his own security company IAM Secure Data Systems, Inc. For $5,000 a day plus expenses, Murphy has dressed up as a phone-company employee and cracked a bank's security system, aided a murder investigation, and conducted studies in airline terrorism. But Murphy's great love is still hacking into company security systems with their permission and helping them guard against potential break-ins.
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:26:42|
John Perry Barlow
John Perry Barlow is a study in contrasts. The man with the WASP-ish name was actually born in Wyoming and educated in a one-room schoolhouse. He was a cattle rancher before he dropped out and became a songwriter for an up-and-coming band called the Grateful Dead. He applied the term "cyberspace" to today's media, and co-founded the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a nonprofit organization devoted to preserving freedom of speech on the Internet. Barlow is a tough guy to pin down. And that might make him one of the greatest hackers of all.
Though Barlow's Apple PowerBook is hidden beneath Grateful Dead stickers and dancing bears, he's still quite grounded in the 21st century. This self-described "techno-hippie" now spends his days fighting the "evil conglomerate," which includes Microsoft, AOL and even the Motion Picture Association of America, while pushing his agenda to preserve freedom of expression in cyberspace. Barlow's greatest hope is that "we will create a civilization in the mind of cyberspace. May it be more humane and fair than your governments have created." In addition, he believes that "there is something inherently liberating about getting on the Internet. There has been demonstrated a cultural infection in Internet use that is more powerful than the infections that others bring to it. And I place a great deal of faith in what's going to happen in society when more people are online and fewer people are watching television."
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:27:57|
And History now...
€ jej €
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:28:11|
A Brief History of Hacking
Prehistory (before 1969)
In the beginning there was the phone company the brand-new Bell Telephone, to be precise. And there were nascent hackers. Of course in 1878 they weren't called hackers yet. Just practical jokers, teenage boys hired to run the switchboards who had an unfortunate predilection for disconnecting and misdirecting calls ("You're not my Cousin Mabel?! Operator! Who's that snickering on the line? Hello?"). Now you know why the first transcontinental communications network hired female operators.
Flash forward to the first authentic computer hackers, circa the 1960s. Like the earlier generation of phone pranksters, MIT geeks had an insatiable curiosity about how things worked. In those days computers were mainframes, locked away in temperature-controlled, glassed-in lairs. It cost megabucks to run those slow-moving hunks of metal; programmers had limited access to the dinosaurs. So the smarter ones created what they called "hacks" programming shortcuts to complete computing tasks more quickly. Sometimes their shortcuts were more elegant than the original program.
Maybe the best hack of all time was created in 1969, when two employees at Bell Labs' think tank came up with an open set of rules to run machines on the computer frontier. Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson called their new standard operating system UNIX. It was a thing of beauty.
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:28:26|
Elder Days (1970-1979)
In the 1970s the cyber frontier was wide open. Hacking was all about exploring and figuring out how the wired world worked. Around 1971 a Vietnam vet named John Draper discovered that the giveaway whistle in Cap'n Crunch cereal boxes perfectly reproduced a 2600 megahertz tone. Simply blow the whistle into a telephone receiver to make free calls; thanks for using AT&T.
Counterculture guru Abbie Hoffman (above) followed the captain's lead with The Youth International Party Line newsletter. This bible spread the word on how to get free phone service. "Phreaking" didn't hurt anybody, the argument went, because phone calls emanated from an unlimited reservoir. Hoffman's publishing partner, Al Bell, changed the newsletter's name to TAP, for Technical Assistance Program. True believers have hoarded the mind-numbingly complex technical articles and worshipped them for two decades.
The only thing missing from the hacking scene was a virtual clubhouse. How would the best hackers ever meet? In 1978 two guys from Chicago, Randy Seuss and Ward Christiansen, created the first personal-computer bulletin-board system. It's still in operation today.
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:28:40|
The Golden Age (1980-1991)
In 1981 IBM announced a new model a stand-alone machine, fully loaded with a CPU, software, memory, utilities, storage. They called it the "personal computer." You could go anywhere and do anything with one of these hot rods. Soon kids abandoned their Chevys to explore the guts of a "Commie 64" or a "Trash-80."
The 1983 movie War Games shone a flashlight onto the hidden face of hacking, and warned audiences nationwide that hackers could get into any computer system. Hackers gleaned a different message from the film. It implied that hacking could get you girls. Cute girls.
The territory was changing. More settlers were moving into the online world. ARPANET was morphing into the Internet, and the popularity of bulletin-board systems exploded. In Milwaukee a group of hackers calling themselves the 414's (their area code) broke into systems at institutions ranging from the Los Alamos Laboratories to Manhattan's Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Then the cops put the arm on them.
The Great Hacker War
To pinpoint the start of the "Great Hacker War," you'd probably have to go back to 1984, when a guy calling himself Lex Luthor founded the Legion of Doom. Named after a Saturday morning cartoon, the LOD had the reputation of attracting the best of the best until one of the gang's brightest young acolytes, a kid named Phiber Optik, feuded with Legion of Doomer Erik Bloodaxe and got tossed out of the clubhouse. Phiber's friends formed a rival group, the Masters of Deception.
Starting in 1990, LOD and MOD engaged in almost two years of online warfare jamming phone lines, monitoring calls, trespassing in each other's private computers. Then the Feds cracked down. For Phiber and friends, that meant jail. It was the end of an era.
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:28:52|
With the government online, the fun ended. Just to show that they meant business, Congress passed a law in 1986 called the Federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. Translation: A felony gets you five. Then along came Robert Morris with his Internet worm in 1988. Crashing 6,000 Net-linked computers earned Morris the distinction of being the first person convicted under the Act's computer-crime provision. Translation: a $10,000 fine and too many hours of community service.
Soon you needed a scorecard to keep up with the arrests. That same year Kevin Mitnick broke into the Digital Equipment Company's computer network; he was nabbed and sentenced to a year in jail. Then Kevin #2 Kevin Poulsen was indicted on phone-tampering charges. Kevin #2 went on the lam and avoided the long arm of the law for 17 months.
Operation Sundevil was the name the government gave to its ham-handed 1990 attempt to crack down on hackers across the country, including the Legion of Doom. It didn't work. But the following year Crackdown Redux resulted in jail sentences for four members of the Masters of Deception. Phiber Optik spent a year in federal prison.
Some people just couldn't learn from their mistakes, though. In February 1995 Kevin Mitnick was arrested again. This time the FBI accused him of stealing 20,000 credit card numbers. He sat in jail for more than a year before pleading guilty in April 1996 to illegal use of stolen cellular telephone numbers.
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:29:23|
Zero Tolerance (1994-1998)
Seeing Mitnick being led off in chains on national TV soured the public's romance with online outlaws. Net users were terrified of hackers using tools like "password sniffers" to ferret out private information, or "spoofing," which tricked a machine into giving a hacker access. Call it the end of anarchy, the death of the frontier. Hackers were no longer considered romantic antiheroes, kooky eccentrics who just wanted to learn things. A burgeoning online economy with the promise of conducting the world's business over the Net needed protection. Suddenly hackers were crooks.
In the summer of 1994 a gang masterminded by a Russian hacker broke into Citibank's computers and made unauthorized transfers totaling more than $10 million from customers' accounts. Citibank recovered all but about $400,000, but the scare sealed the deal. The hackers' arrests created a fraud vacuum out there in cyberspace.
Kevin Mitnick, busted (below)
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:29:30|
Hack 2K (1999+)
As the millenium approached, general cyber-hysteria over the infamous Y2K bug was further inflamed by several serious hacker attacks. Well-documented by the media, these invasions were experienced directly (perhaps for the first time) by the growing masses of casual web surfers. In the second week of February 2000 some of the most popular Internet sites (CNN, Yahoo, E-Bay and Datek) were subject to "denial of service" attacks. Their networks clogged with false requests sent by multiple computers under the control of a single hacker, these commercial sites crashed and lost untold millions in sales. In May, a new virus appeared that spread rapidly around the globe. The "I Love You" virus infected image and sound files and spread quickly by causing copies of itself to be sent to all individuals in an address book.
Recent attacks on seemingly "secure" sites such as The White House, FBI and Microsoft.com have proven that despite massive public and private investment in cyber defense technology and methodology, hackers continue to pose a serious threat to the "information infrastructure."
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:30:18|
A commuter exits a New York City subway station underneath an electronic sign that hackers reprogrammed to read "The Hacker Quarterly."
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:30:27|
Hacker Psych 101
By Jeremy Quittner
Who are hackers, and what makes them tick?
Two experts in the field of cyber forensics and psychology have some answers to that question. One is Marc Rogers, a behavioral sciences researcher at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Canada, and a former cyber detective. The other is Jerrold M. Post, a psychiatrist at George Washington University in Washington, D.C.
Rogers and Post have identified some basic behavioral trends for hackers who commit crimes. Rogers says one characteristic is that they tend to minimize or misconstrue the consequences of their activities, rationalizing that their behavior is really performing a service to society. (Some researchers call this the Robin Hood Syndrome). They may also tend to dehumanize and blame the victim sites they attack. Post says the same hackers share a sense of "ethical flexibility," which means that since human contact is minimized over the computer, hacking becomes like a game where the serious consequences can be easily ignored.
But Rogers is careful to point out that not all hackers are criminals. He's identified four categories as follows:
1. Old School Hackers: These are your 1960s style computer programmers from Stanford or MIT for whom the term hacking is a badge of honor. They're interested in lines of code and analyzing systems, but what they do is not related to criminal activity. They don't have a malicious intent, though they may have a lack of concern for privacy and proprietary information because they believe the Internet was designed to be an open system.
2. Script Kiddies, or Cyber-Punks: Most commonly what the media calls "hackers." These are the kids, like Mafia Boy, who most frequently get caught by authorities because they brag online about their exploits. As an age group, they can be between 12 and 30 years old, they're predominantly white and male, and on average have a grade 12 education. Bored in school, very adept with computers and technology, they download scripts or hack into systems with the intent to vandalize or disrupt systems.
3. Professional Criminals, or Crackers: These guys make a living breaking into systems and selling the information. They might get hired for corporate or government espionage. They may also have ties to organized criminal groups.
4. Coders and Virus Writers: Not a lot of research has been done on these guys. They like to see themselves as an elite. They have a lot of programming background and write code but won't use it themselves. They have their own networks to experiment with, which they call "Zoos." They leave it to others to introduce their codes into "The Wild," or the Internet.
Underlying the psyche of the criminal hacker may be a deep sense of inferiority. Consequently, the mastery of computer technology, or the shut down of a major site, might give them a sense of power. "It's a population that takes refuge in computers because of their problems sustaining real world relationships," says Post. "Causing millions of dollars of damage is a real power trip."
|IM |jej||1/9/2003 18:32:35|
Defense Methods... (disconnect.... LOL)
|Outlaws or angels - Hall of fame||bookmark topic | reload topic|
|Forums » Parking lot||topic closed|
|articles forums media subtitles software hardware search||login|
|About us | Help us | Donate | Credits | Downloads/goodies | Partners||©2000-2008 Divxstation L - Legal information +|